Umbilical cord tissue is a bridge connecting mother and fetus, providing blood circulation and functioning as a sole transporter of nutrients. Umbilical cord matrix consists of rich source of robust mesenchymal stem cells, which can differentiate into plethora of cell types. Their advantage include collection doesn’t need invasive procedures and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is not necessary. Their application to stem cell therapy from various clinical trials and research had showed gratifying results.
Adipose is loose connective tissues which are basically adipocytes and they comprise cocktail of cells and immune cells viz., preadipocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, progenitors and stromal cells. This heterogeneous mixture of progenitor and stem cells has high plasticity to differentiate into diverse cell types like chondrocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes, hepatocytes, neural cells, endothelial and epithelial cells, making it a very potent stem cells in in-vivo conditions. The entirety of these adipose derived stem cells in research and clinical trials has taken them to treat multitude of diseases.
Bone marrow is a spongy soft tissue found in the center of the bone. They have abundant niche of different undifferentiated progenitor cells and one of the cells are Bone marrow derived MSCs which differentiate into many cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes, beta-pancreatic cells under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions
Umbilical cord blood stem cells are similar to bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, which will differentiate into blood cells and cells of the immune systems. These stem cells are used to treat conditions of blood cancers or disorders and autoimmune diseases.
Peripheral blood consists of stem cells which are undifferentiated in nature. It is usually transplanted to cancer patients who had undergone irradiation. This is least invasive procedure compared to bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells harvesting.
Placenta derived stem cells derived from placenta of the fetus, they are non-invasive donor procured and consists of abundant MSCs. They have same potential and characteristics as any other mesenchymal stem cells in particular they have demonstrated better immuno-modulatory function and osteogenic potential.
Amniotic stem cells are either obtained from amniotic fluid or from amniotic membrane which is the innermost layer of the placenta. Amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of cells and poses similar characteristics of adult stem cells.
Dental pulp stem cells are derived from the soft tissue underneath the teeth, dental follicle and periodontal. They exhibit similar multipotent characteristics to adult stem cells. Their differentiation includes adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, myocardiocytes, bone and tissue of oral cavity and neuronal cells.
Neural stem cells are cells which can differentiate into neurons and glial cells. As like other stem cells they possess multipotent characteristic.They primarily differentiate into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes.